The psychometric properties of the 'safety Attitudes questionnaire' in out-of-hours primary care services in the Netherlands
Background The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) is one of the most widely used instruments to assess safety culture among healthcare providers. The ambulatory version of the SAQ (SAQ-AV) can be used in the primary care setting. Our study objective was to examine the underlying factors and psychometric properties of the Dutch translation of the SAQ-AV in out-of-hours primary care services. Design Cross-sectional observational study using a web-survey. Setting Sixteen out-of-hours general practitioner cooperatives and two call centers in the Netherlands. Participants Primary healthcare providers in out-of-hours services. Main outcome measures Item-descriptive statistics, factor loadings, Cronbach’s alpha scores, corrected item-total correlations, scale correlations. Results The questionnaire was answered by 853 (43.2%) healthcare professionals. In the factor analyses, 784 respondents were included; mainly general practitioners (N = 470) and triage nurses (N = 189). Items were included in the analyses based on question type and results from previous studies. Five factors were drawn with reliability scores between .49 and .86 and a good construct validity. The five factors covered 27 of the 62 questionnaire items, with three to five items per factor. Conclusions The Dutch translation of the SAQ-AV, with five factors, seems to be a reliable tool for measuring patient safety culture and guide quality improvement interventions in out-of-hours primary care services. The Dutch factor structure differed from the original SAQ-AV and other translated versions. In future studies, the questionnaire should be validated further by examining if there is a relationship between the responses on the SAQ-AV, patient experiences, and the occurrence of adverse events.
Deilkås, Ellen C Tveter
Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi
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