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dc.contributor.authorvon Soest, Tilmann
dc.contributor.authorLuhmann, Maike
dc.contributor.authorHansen, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorGerstorf, Denis
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-27T23:11:18Z
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-28T07:51:03Z
dc.date.available2019-01-27T23:11:18Z
dc.date.available2019-01-28T07:51:03Z
dc.date.issued2018-10-04
dc.identifier.citationvon Soest TvS, Luhmann, Hansen T, Gerstorf D. Development of loneliness in midlife and old age: Its nature and correlates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2018en
dc.identifier.issn0022-3514
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10642/6554
dc.description.abstractResearch has long demonstrated that loneliness is a key risk factor for poor health. However, less is known about the development and predictors of loneliness across later adulthood. We examined these questions using two-wave data obtained 5 years apart in the population-based Norwegian NorLAG study (N = 5,555; age 40-80 years; 51% women). We considered direct measures of loneliness (asking directly about feeling lonely) and indirect measures (avoiding the term loneliness) and linked them to self-report data on personality and contact with friends, and to register data on socioeconomic (education, income, unemployment), physical health (sick leave, lifetime history of disability), and social factors (children, marriage/cohabitation, lifetime history of divorce and widowhood). Results indicated that levels of loneliness increased steadily for women, whereas men’s levels followed a U-shaped curve, with highest loneliness at ages 40 and 80. At age 40, loneliness declined between the two data waves, but with increasing age the decrease abated and turned into increases when loneliness was measured indirectly. Disability, no spouse/cohabitating partner, widowhood, and little contact with friends were each associated with more loneliness. Similarly, people high in emotional stability and extraversion reported less loneliness and experienced steeper loneliness declines on one or both loneliness measures. We take our results to illustrate the utility of combining self-report and register data and conclude that the development of loneliness across the second half of life is associated with both individual difference characteristics and aspects of social embedding. We discuss possible mechanisms underlying our findings and consider practical implications.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThe Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation Study (NorLAG) is financed by the Research Council of Norway (grant nos. 149564 and 168373); the Ministry of Health and Care Services; the Ministry of Labour; the Ministry of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion; the Ministry of Local Government and Regional Development; Norwegian Social Research (NOVA); and Statistics Norway. The NorLAG dataset is part of the ACCESS Life Course infrastructure project funded by the National Financing Initiative for Research Infrastructure at the Research Council of Norway (grant no. 195403) and by NOVA. Norges forskningsråd 236997.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherAmerican Psychological Associationen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesJournal of Personality and Social Psychology;
dc.subjectLonelinessen
dc.subjectOld agesen
dc.subjectHealthen
dc.subjectSocial relationshipsen
dc.subjectPersonalitiesen
dc.titleDevelopment of loneliness in midlife and old age: Its nature and correlatesen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.typePeer revieweden
dc.date.updated2019-01-27T23:11:18Z
dc.description.versionacceptedVersionen
dc.identifier.doihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000219
dc.identifier.cristinID1636535
dc.relation.projectIDNorges forskningsråd: 236997
dc.source.issn0022-3514
dc.source.issn1939-1315
dc.relation.journalJournal of Personality and Social Psychology


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