In the shadow of Anglobalization national tests in English in Norway and the making of a new English underclass
This study argues that the recent ‘English revolution’ in Norway conflates with the growing standardization of education in the European Union (EU; e.g. the 1999 Bologna Treaty). This proliferation of English at the supranational level has knock-oneffects at the national level. Using documents from Statistics Norway, The Directorate of Education, and interviews with teachers and students, it argues that the lack of a robust rationale for high-stakes testing in English must be seen in light of what is called the Anglobalization of education. Findings indicate that the ascendancy of English in Norway may serve to further disadvantage the increasing number of students from immigrant backgrounds (particularly from Asia, Africa, and South America) and privilege their counterparts who hail from the ‘Anglosphere’ and EU. Following Bourdieu, it is argued that officialdom commits symbolic violence by disguising its role as a vital catalyst of the economic field.