An ideal bread: a literature review
INTRODUCTION: Despite frequent discussions about the health-related value of carbohydrate-rich foods, the grocery stores offer a wide range of bread varieties. In this context, there are several actors (e.g. Fedon Lindberg, Birger Svihus and Ingers rugbrød) claiming that they have the recipe for the ”ideal” bread. However, their breads are very different, and the argumentation why they are healthy is clearly embedded in very different nutrition philosophies; i.e. low glycemic index/low carb (Lindberg), low energy (Svihus) and high fiber (Ingers rugbrød). PURPOSE: The purpose of the present thesis was therefore to elaborate a more holistic view on what an “ideal” bread really is. METHODS: Four main criteria for an “ideal” bread were set. The “ideal” bread recipe should be; (1) healthy, (2) sensory appealing, (3) environmental beneficial, and (4) practical. To set some exact criteria in relation to the health aspect, it was decided that the resulting bread recipe should fulfil the Keyhole requirements (minimum 25 percent whole grains and 5 gram dietary fiber/100 g, as well as maximum 5 g sugar, 0.5 g salt and 7 g fat per 100 g), and achieve at least three cakes on the Bread scale (i.e. a whole grain bread). A literature review was conducted, and bread baking books were searched for a suitable recipe to be modified to fit with the criteria. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The resulting bread recipe had a high coarseness (78 percent), relatively much dietary fiber (7.6g/100g), low amounts of salt (0.2g/100g) and fat (3.5g/100g), and no added sugar. Due to a high water content, which among others led to a sensory appealing texture, the bread also had a relatively low energy-density. By basing the recipe on local grains (i.e. rye and oat), environmental considerations were furthermore taken into account. With regard to the practical aspects, an easy and time-efficient fermentation method was identified (i.e. long and cold fermentation (up to 24 hours at approximately 4oC)). All in all, instead of having an exclusive health focus, it should in the case of an “ideal” bread be strived for a broader approach where all the aspects surrounding its production and consumption, is taken into account.